5.step 1. Descriptive analyses
Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations for the variables included in the study are presented in Table 1 . The bivariate correlations are indicated by a Pearson’s product momentum correlation coefficient (r). Among the background factors, weak negative correlations between sex and work engagement (r = – 0.18, p < 0.01) and sex and task performance (r = -0.17, p < 0.01) were obtained for the South Korean sample, while for Ethiopia they failed to reach significance. Work position was weakly negatively correlated with work engagement (r = -0.22, p < 0.01 for South Korea and r = -0.16, p < 0.05 for Ethiopia) and innovative work behavior (r = -0.19, p < 0.01 for South Korea and r = -0 .24, p < 0.01 for Ethiopia). Transformational and transactional leadership styles were positively correlated with work engagement and indicators of work outcomes in both countries, with the exception of the relationship between the transactional leadership style and work engagement in Ethiopia, which failed to reach significance. Laissez-faire leadership was weakly positively correlated with work engagement (r = 0.13, p < 0.05) and innovative work behavior (r = 0.17, p < 0.01) in South Korea, while in Ethiopia it was negatively correlated with work engagement (r = -0.21, p < 0.05) and innovative work behavior (r = -0.16, p < 0.05). Its correlation with task performance failed to reach the significance level in both countries. Work engagement was moderately positively related with measures of outcome indicators -innovative work behavior (r = 0.57, p < 0.01, and r = 0.66, p < 0.01) and task performance (r = 0.46, p < 0.01, and r = 0.54, p < 0.01) for Ethiopia and South Korea, respectively. With respect to internal consistency, all measures for both samples demonstrated traditionally acceptable internal reliability levels (? ranged from 0.77 to 0.95).
Bivariate relationship, imply (M), simple departure (SD), and interior consistencies (Cronbach’s?) of the https://www.datingranking.net/tr/skout-inceleme/ studies variables into Southern Korean (letter = 291) and Ethiopian (letter = 147) trials.
The new coding scheme was below: Gender: 1 = men, dos = female; Education: step 1 = diploma, 2 = BSc, step 3 = MSc, 4 = PhD; work standing: 1 = director/department direct/assistant head, dos = party frontrunner, step 3 = staff. (mais…)